Mazagon Dock looks ahead at next sub project - Broadsword by Ajai Shukla - Strategy. Economics. Defence.

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Monday 28 April 2014

Mazagon Dock looks ahead at next sub project

As shipyard gains in confidence building the Scorpene, it hopes for a second line of six improved Scorpenes

By Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 29th April 14

Project 75 is one of India’s most closely guarded military projects, almost as inaccessible to outsiders as the nuclear ballistic missile submarine, INS Arihant, nearing completion at Visakhapatnam. In a giant shed in the East Yard of Mazagon Dock Ltd, Mumbai (MDL), a 200-feet-long, cigar-shaped, metal cylinder is the first of six conventionally powered Scorpene submarines that the Indian Navy contracted to build with Franco-Spanish company, Armaris (since taken over by French shipbuilding major, DCNS).

The boat (as submariners call their vessels) is obviously close to completion --- a small remaining gap at the rear will be filled by the section that holds the engine. Nearby, a second Scorpene is taking shape, metallic rings being welded together to form a hull. In the shed next door, a third vessel is racing towards completion.

Hundreds of MDL workmen swarm over the scaffolding that encases the three submarines, overseen by 25-30 French experts from DCNS. They are fitting the wiring, piping and combat systems that must function silently and efficiently in the most taxing underwater conditions.

Business Standard has repeatedly applied to visit this facility, but each time it has been turned down. The description above comes from a trusted source with intimate access to the Scorpene project. The ministry of defence (MoD) discourages the media after years of negative publicity over a project running four years late.

Yet MDL’s current chairman, Rear Admiral (Retired) Rahul Shrawat --- who inherited the Scorpene delay when he assumed charge of MDL --- is upbeat. He promises the first submarine by September 2016, and to deliver the next five Scorpenes at nine-month intervals rather than the one-year intervals contracted.

Speaking to Business Standard, Shrawat promised: “We will launch the first Scorpene by Sept 2015 and deliver it to the navy within a year, i.e. by Sept 2016. The subsequent boats will be delivered at nine-month intervals, with the sixth and final vessel joining the fleet by June 2020.

Shrawat admits this is an aggressive timeline without any buffers for unexpected delays. As Business Standard first reported (Scorpene tangled in govt web, December 19, 2009) Project 75 was delayed by a sloppy Rs 18,798 crore contract that made MDL responsible for buying Rs 2,700 crore worth of Scorpene internal equipment from DCNS. When MDL ordered, DCNS cited inflation to raise the price to Rs 4,700 crore. The ensuing negotiations, and the lengthy processes for fresh government sanctions for added costs, caused over two years of delay.

“Many significant items are yet to be delivered to us, even for the first submarine. This is a big criticality, but we will meet the challenge,” says Shrawat confidently.

The Scorpene delay is part of a critical shortfall of operational submarines with the navy. The fleet has just ten Sindhughosh-class (Russian Kilo-class) submarines, and four Shishumar-class (German HDW) submarines, of which just 9-10 were operational at any time. The availability fell to 7-8 after two recent submarine accidents --- the sinking of INS Sindhurakshak in Mumbai after a cataclysmic explosion on board that killed 18 crewmembers last August; and a fire on board INS Sindhuratna in February that killed two officers and led to the resignation of the navy chief.

Even so, Project 75 has created confidence about MDL’s new ability to build submarines. The shipyard is readying to build a second line of six submarines under the new Project 75I, worth an estimated Rs 50,000 crore ($8.25 billion). Government sanction is being processed for Project 75I.

Rather than floating a global tender for Project 75I, Shrawat wants to take advantage of the experience and expertise gained during Project 75. Instead of having a fourth type of submarine in the navy’s fleet (in addition to the Kilo-class; HDW and Scorpene), MDL sees benefit in a more modern Scorpene with air independent propulsion (AIP) and land-attack missiles that the Project 75 vessels lack. Only the last two Project 75 vessels are slated to have AIP.

“Most naval policymakers would not consider it prudent to have a fourth type of conventional submarine in the fleet. I’m sure the government will feel the same. So why not build more Scorpenes; improved with AIP and land attack missiles”, says Shrawat.

The defence ministry led by AK Antony for the last eight years consistently shrank from such decisions in favour of a single vendor, preferring the path of open tendering even when it created operational drawbacks, like a multiplicity of platforms. The next government’s orientation will be keenly watched.

Another key factor in the Project 75I decision would be the willingness of foreign governments to supply submarines equipped with land attack missiles. The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) proscribes the transfer of missiles with ranges of 300 kilometres and more.

Meanwhile, Indian defence shipyards are jostling fiercely for a share of Project 75I. The navy wants two submarines built abroad and inducted quickly into service, with the remaining four being built by MDL and the newly acquired defence shipyard, Hindustan Shipyard Ltd (HSL). But L&T cites its key role in building the nuclear submarine, INS Arihant, to argue that it should build at least one Project 75I submarine. 


  1. Only the last two Scorpene subs will have Air Independent Propulsion? That means 4 of the 6 submarines are obsolete even before they have been manufactured! Why are we going in for yesterday's technology? HDW which lost the bid to Scorpene had offered AIP technology in all the subs. Also, the manufacturing facility at Mazgaon docks was more suited for HDW subs, having been created under the 1980s contract.

  2. Haha @ Anon 16:02
    Really stop being an arm chair general read up first about AIP, it does not give long range only lurking underwater endurance, It makes sense for harassing than longer combat patrol time, Not having an AIP is not a Handicap let also remember the horrific maintenance schedules that the LOX modules aboard an AIP and its shore systems require

  3. With congis at helm India will go backwards. Even porkiestan has AIP in its augusta class submarines.

  4. I am not sure whether the first four will be AIP. or not ? Probably first four's AIP. will be supplied by the french and last two's DRDO. None will be diesel-electric. But Pakistan already has 03 Augusta 90 B in their fleet. Last one was built in Pakistan with AIP. That means Pakistan can make AIP. submarine but we are still struggling. As far as submarine fleet is concern Pakistan is still years ahead of India.

  5. It is always better to have 2-3 types of equipment s from different sources, at least one local product. It derisks spare availability, helps to ensure enemy needs to work harder on counter strategy. We need to build all thee in India.

  6. @Anonymous 16:02

    1) Not having AIP doesn't make a sub obsolete because AIP is still at a nascent stage due various problems with them like over heating issues with fuel cell AIP and inefficiency of MESMA etc

    2)Mazgaon had trained sub technicians in 80's from HDW but due to HDW bribery case last 2 HDW 209 subs to be built here were cancelled plus the budjet squeeze of late 80's-90's ensured that trained manpower sat idle and ultimately most of them left for greener pastures due lack of orders.

  7. Sir which type of defense minister will suit india , Anthony is honest strict but not only you but many defense analyst's say he is very concise of his reputation so he takes a lot of time to take decisions but don't you think such is the scale of india's defense purchases that it needs to be passed under a binocular, and that to this being the Congress in power where Rajiv gandhi even after his death is being accused in the bofors case, even though the gun is said to have performed very well in the kargil war,please explain

  8. After all the delays the subs are being constructed without AIP? And now 3 are being made and the next (no. 4) will also not have AIP? What are we missing hete? Has the IN & MoD lost the plot somewhere?
    Grateful if Broadsword can enlighten us on this matter.

  9. @Ajai sir

    As i see if all goes well IN will operate 7 different types of submarines in the next 2 to 3 decades not counting the 2 Akula SSGNs (1 on lease and another to be leased), how? this is how:-

    1. 4 HDW/Shishumar that still have atleast 15 yrs of life left in them
    2. 7 Kilo/Sindhughosh that have 10/15 yrs life left in them & post upgrade will serve another 15 yrs
    3. 6 Scorpenes under P75 that will serve till 2050 atleast
    4. 6 advanced Scopenes or another class chonsen through bidding under P75I that will serve till 2070 (launched after 2025)
    5. 3 Arihant class SSBNs
    6. 3 bigger follow on of Arihant SSBNs
    7. atleast 6 SSNs to guard the 6 SSBNs

    this will be a ultimate logistics nightmare & will pose serious operational handicap (i think). to avoid these the best way forward is to:-

    1. let the Shishumar/Sindhughosh retire without further upgrades by 2025
    2. build 12 more Scorpenes with AIP (till 2030 launching 1 sub every 9 months)after the current 6 and then add AIP module in the current lot of 6 during mid life upgrades from 2025 onwards
    3. build 6 to 9 SSNs with labnnd attack capability based on the French Barracuda class SSNs which are themselves a derivative of Scorpenes (some say land attack ability on conventional SSKs is not needed)

    that way IN will have 4 different class of submarines by 2030 such and achieve/exceed the target of 30 subs decided sometime back with:-

    1. 18 Scorpenes
    2. 6 to 9 SSNs
    3. 3 Arihant SSBNs
    4. 3 follow on SSBNs

    these are completely my views, and everyone is free to disagree


    Joydeep Ghosh


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