10 years after Kargil, Bofors upgrade hangs fire - Broadsword by Ajai Shukla - Strategy. Economics. Defence.

Home Top Ad


Sunday 19 July 2009

10 years after Kargil, Bofors upgrade hangs fire

Left: The Bofors 155mm FH-77B, clad in the colours of an Indian Army medium artillery regiment.
Above: The Bofors in action during the Kargil conflict in 1999.

by Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 19th July 09

On the 10th anniversary of the Kargil conflict, the gun that did so much to facilitate that victory --- the 155 mm Bofors FH-77B --- could be staring at a major setback. With India’s artillery modernisation programme already stalled, the plan to refurbish and upgrade India’s old 155 mm FH-77B Bofors guns also seems headed for failure.

The reason: the Indian Army, long accused of framing its equipment requirements unrealistically, apparently wants the upgraded Bofors gun to deliver better performance than new guns in the market today.

The company that made the guns --- Sweden’s Bofors AB, now owned by British multinational BAE Systems --- has examined the army’s technical demands and decided not to bid, since the demands are unrealistic. Industry sources close to the tender describe it as “a high-tech wish list” that fails to recognise the limitations in upgrading a 20-year-old gun.

According to this source, “Some of the requirements in the upgrade for these 20-year-old guns are more extreme than the requirements for new builds of the FH-77B.”

The tender for modernising the Bofors FH-77B, involves overhauling the gun, fitting a state-of-the-art sighting system, and upgrading the barrels from 39 calibre to 52 calibre. The barrel upgrade will allow the guns to fire heavier ammunition, inflicting heavier damage on targets.

Brigadier Khutab Hai, Chief Executive of Mahindra Defence Systems (MDS), which partners BAE Systems in India, confirms, “It is true that we didn’t respond. We have given the MoD (Ministry of Defence) our reasons. I would not like to comment on why we are not participating, other than to say that some of the specifications asked for by the army cannot be met technically.”

BAE Systems India declined to comment.

Undeterred by Bofors’ withdrawal, the MoD-owned Ordnance Factories Board (OFB) and the Tata group have stepped forward and bid for the Bofors upgrade programme. Neither has ever developed an artillery gun earlier. The OFB, however, has the technical drawings of the Bofors FH-77B gun, which were handed over by Bofors when India signed the contract in the mid-1980s.

In an interview in September 2007, then OFB Chairman Sudipta Ghosh --- currently in CBI custody in a corruption investigation --- had told this correspondent, “The Bofors gun has not been productionised (sic) here, but [Gun Carriage Factory, Jabalpur] has all the drawings…. and based on those, we have indigenized [some parts of the Bofors gun].

Allegations of kickbacks in the 1986 Bofors deal had made it politically difficult to manufacture the guns in India. Eventually, the US $1.4 billion contract ended with the purchase of 410 “made-in-Sweden” guns. The part that was really advantageous for India --- the indigenous manufacture of another 1170 guns under transfer of technology (ToT) --- never took place.

Attempts to fill the resulting shortfall of artillery guns have been stymied over the last decade by erratic procurement practices and unrealistic technical demands. Since 2003, through several rounds of trials, the guns offered by three of the world’s leading artillery manufacturers --- Bofors of Sweden, Denel of South Africa and Soltam Systems of Israel --- have repeatedly failed to meet Indian Army expectations.

For BAE Systems, the decision not to bid was a difficult one. It had set up a JV with MDS --- with BAE Systems holding a 26% stake, the maximum permissible --- primarily to build artillery systems in India. Last year the JV had written to the MoD offering a sweetener: if it won artillery deals like the Bofors upgrade, it would give the influential Indian defence production establishment a share of the work.

The OFB would be given the work of manufacturing the gun barrels; public sector Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) could make the sighting systems; while the gun trails and gun carriages (on which the guns rest, fire and move) would be built in the new BAE-MDS factory in Faridabad.

Despite all this, BAE Systems has not bid. Industry sources say BAE is confident that the OFB and the Tatas will prove technically unable to upgrade the Bofors guns. Their bids have been resting in the MoD since early 2009.


  1. Time to disband the Arty corps, if we have any of it left. Not having a capability is less embarrassing than faking one.

  2. the requirements asked for are not difficult to achieve. If the barrel is difficult to upgrade then what else is there to upgrade.

  3. Here are the typical GSQR of Arty.


    Surely the barrel is not the only thing. I cant understand when the army has almost no guns left why do they want what no one else has.

  4. कृपया श्रीमान एके एंथनी जी को पंजाबी बासमती चावल खिलाऐं फिर देखें कमाल

  5. Ajai,

    Inspite of meeting all the technical parameters perfectly during the four rounds of trial in India, what kind of problems Indian Army is facing now to acquire the latest FH-77 BW L52 towed guns from BAE system. Moreover BAE system now acquired the bofors company, no longer a Swedish company. Is it because of political problems? Why Indian media not raising such issue? Its a serious issue now..Its more than 20 years Indian Army not able to purchase the Artillery guns due to the political problems.

  6. what kind of problems Indian Army is facing now to acquire the latest FH-77 BW L52 towed guns from BAE system. Moreover BAE system now acquired the bofors company, no longer a Swedish company. Is it because of political problems?
    there is no technical problems with FH77 OR M777,only reason can be the elections were about to take place and congress govt did not want to loose the elections due to past scandal with bofors

    fh77 outperforms ATHOS2052 in rate of fire and some other parameters as well hands down.

    and m777 weighs 2 tons less than pagesus light weight howitzer

    so i hope this time they just buy both m777 and fh77

  7. and m777 weighs 2 tons less than pagesus light weight howitzer

    so i hope this time they just buy both m777 and fh77

    You and I can only hope....and reality is it will take another battle to acquire such guns.....so wait till such war broke out...

  8. The correct figures are: The M777 weighs 500 kg less than the Pegasus (4200 kg, versus 4700 kg). The weight of the Pegasus with Auxillary Power Unit is 5100 kg, but the Indian Army is buying without an APU. So the Pegasus weight comes down to 4700 kg.

    Incidentally, BAE Systems announced yesterday that the US Army had ordered another 63 M777 ultralight howitzers (ULHs). These supplement its earlier order of 62 ULHs, many of which are providing fire support to its troops in Afghanistan.

  9. to broadsword

    i thought m777 weighs only 3.175 tons

  10. Anonymous 04:12, if the M777 weighed that much it would be a frigate.

    It's official weight is 4100 kg, but it could be marginally above or below that depending upon what kit is ordered along with it.

  11. ajai, nice joke but you missed the decimal point, it's not a comma !

    anon hasn't made that mistake.

  12. to ajai

    its anon at 4.12

    हमने गणित शास्त्र में दशमलव के प्रयोग का अध्ययन अछ्छी तरह से किया है

    thanks fighter class

  13. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering
    if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my
    newest twitter updates. I've been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.
    Also visit my page : best usa online casinos


Recent Posts

Page 1 of 10412345...104Next >>Last