Tackling China in Ladakh - Broadsword by Ajai Shukla - Strategy. Economics. Stuff.

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Thursday, 18 June 2020

Tackling China in Ladakh


By Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 19th June 20

The government’s initial denial of China’s serious border violations in Ladakh has been disproved in bloody fashion with the avoidable deaths of 20 Indian soldiers and injuries to many more. It is time to step back, take stock of events, the motivations driving them and what may lie ahead.

First, what exactly has happened? On the night of April 19, intelligence reported the movement of scores of heavy vehicles on the Chinese side of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh, all the way from Chumar and Demchok in the “southern sector”, to Chushul and Pangong Tso in the “central sector” to Galwan and Depsang in the “northern sector”. The army, in a flawed assessment, passed this off as a Chinese springtime exercise – a routine annual event on both sides. The Indian army, however, had called off its exercise because of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, there were few troops to counter what came next.

That things were amiss became evident when Chinese artillery guns appeared opposite the Gogra Heights in the Galwan River valley and then at Pangong Tso. Then Chinese tanks, armoured carriers and artillery guns were spotted in the Depsang Plains, India’s northern tip that ends in the Karakoram Pass.

On May 5, thousands of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers crossed the LAC into the Galwan River valley scuffling violently with Indian troops as they forced their way five kilometres (km) along the valley to the Galwan’s junction with the Shyok River. From here, the PLA dominated the Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldi (DSDBO) road, a newly built 255-km road artery to northern Ladakh. Simultaneously, PLA troopers also crossed the LAC at two other points, including a 3-5 km ingress at Gogra, near Hot Springs. 

A second PLA ingress occurred on May 9, some 2,000 km away, at Naku La pass in Sikkim. Here, PLA troops crossed a formal international border – Sikkim is the only settled boundary between India and China. With the Indian army having blocked the PLA about two km inside India, hundreds of soldiers from both sides remain in a tense face-off.

A third PLA intrusion happened on May 17/18 at Pangong Tso lake, where Chinese troops and heavy vehicles crossed the LAC and siezed traditionally unoccupied territory along the lake’s northern bank. Indian border patrols, which traditionally went up to a mountain spur called Finger 8, were now blocked by the PLA at Finger 4, eight km inside the Indian-claimed LAC. Simultaneously, the Chinese occupied the Finger Heights – a mountaintop that dominates the lake all the way up to Finger 4. This area has been connected backwards with a metal road to the LAC.

At all six ingress points – three in the Galwan valley, one at Pangong Tso and one further south at Chushul, the Chinese have fortified their positions with clear intentions to stay. At the sixth point at Naku La, in Sikkim, no construction has taken place, suggesting that this is a feint.

This week, PLA troops have also crossed the LAC at a seventh point, ingressing several km into the Depsang Plains near Daulat Beg Oldi. Here, they are building two roads on the Indian side of the LAC.

To comprehend these events, it is essential to understand the nature of the Sino-Indian frontier, where there is no agreed border. The LAC, which is the de facto border based on actual control of territory, has been neither delineated (settled on a map) or demarcated (marked on the ground). Both India and China have different interpretations of where it runs. Since there is practically no human habitation in these areas and consequently no village records, Chinese and Indian border forces assert their territorial claims by patrolling up to their claimed boundary line. In areas where there are conflicting claims, Indian and Chinese patrols sometimes cross each other while going up to their respective claim lines. Despite the potential for clashes, five major Sino-Indian agreements have – until now – largely kept the peace. The first of these, the Border Peace and Tranquillity Agreement (BPTA), signed in September 1993, is termed the “mother agreement.” It was supplemented in 1996 with an agreement on confidence-building measures; a 2005 agreement on standard operating procedures for patrols that come into contact; a 2012 agreement that sets out processes for consultation and co-operation; and, most recently, the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement of 2013.

Both Beijing and New Delhi realise that a mutually delineated LAC would end the uncertainty that causes troop clashes. The 1996 agreement explicitly notes the need for a “common understanding of the alignment of the line of actual control in the India–China border areas”. It states that the two sides “agree to exchange maps indicating their respective perceptions of the entire alignment of the line of actual control as soon as possible”. However, China stonewalls the exchange of LAC maps, keeping alive the window for clashes.

However, this time round, it appears China has bigger plans: It is taking advantage of an Indian patrolling lacuna to shift the LAC. The lacuna is this: While Chinese border guards have always patrolled right up to their claimed LAC, Indian troops have stayed short of the LAC, walking only up to a line of “patrolling points” (PPs) that are some way short of the LAC. An official who was involved in drawing up the PPs says the aim was to “avoid provoking the Chinese”.

A high-level government body, the China Study Group drew up the first set of PPs in 1975, soon after Indian satellites completed their first survey and metric maps of the border areas became available. That initial line of PPs was moved closer to the LAC after the BPTA was signed in 1993 and finalized in 1995-96 when the current PPs were laid down. But, in most sectors, there remains a gap of a few km between the PP and the LAC.

Mapping PLA actions over the last few months, their game plan appears to be to usurp this unpatrolled gap. The PLA intruders have constructed roads close to PP14, PP15 and PP17. In Depsang, they have advanced up to PP12 and PP13. True, at the Pangong Tso they have occupied territory well inside Finger 8, where Indian patrols regularly went. But this could be because Finger 8 is uncomfortably close to the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway, for which the PLA is creating a territorial buffer. Alternatively it may be the plan to eventually withdraw from here, tossing India a face-saver while retaining the tactically crucial heights overlooking the DBDSO road.

What are India’s options, going forward? New Delhi must mount a full court press incorporating all elements of India’s national power – not just military, but also strategic, diplomatic and economic. For now, the army seems to have been pushed forward as the fall guy. 

In 1986, after the PLA occupied Indian territory in Sumdorong Chu in Arunachal Pradesh, India not just massed forces at the intrusion point but also designated Arunachal Pradesh a full-fledged Indian state. In handling the current crisis, New Delhi must reverse years of subservient behavior towards China. Beijing would have noted that, since the Wuhan summit in 2018, Delhi has avoided criticising China over Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang Hong Kong, the Belt and Road Initiative and its handling of the Covid-19 pandemic. New Delhi rightly upbraided Pakistan’s envoy for detaining two Indian embassy employees in Islamabad. However, the Chinese ambassador to New Delhi has not been summoned even after the barbaric killing of 20 Indian soldiers. It is time to shed the kid gloves.



54 comments:

  1. Very well explained. Easy for a layman to understand. Does Nepal misadventure related to this unfortunate incidence? Is China still occupying our Indian territory? Was Indian intelligence, NSA sleeping or looking other side with all inputs? Is this not a political failures and put the blame on the institution as this govt has been doing (refer to AAj Tak reporter commentry on the issue)

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  2. All of the suggestions given while well meaning are useless, and will make India appear like the kid who continues to indignantly cry long after being spanked and scolded.

    The simple fact is the army failed spectacularly that night despite the build-up happening for weeks and we're now staring at large tracts of land lost permanently, so-called negotiations or not. The MEA is spineless and even as of last evening, in its usual whimpering style, added the usual one-liner in its statement gingerly requesting China to respect the LAC.

    What do we have now then? The Army will not be accounted for because hey, we have a culture of not questioning them and the MEA is scared out of its wits. Back to drawing solace then from killing terrorists in J&K, as today's headlines are already showing.

    This govt, its military leaders (I never thought Rawat was any good anyway right from the time I saw him smiling smugly for the cameras) and the too-diplomatic-for-the-nations-good MEA will be remembered by history for committing the same Nehru-like fiasco which they've blamed him for all these years.

    Welcome China, have some traditional Ladakhi tea!

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    Replies
    1. Curious to understand your credentials having made such strong statements.

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  3. So is the political leadership holding back the army from taking proactive steps to defend LAC?

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  4. A good analysis sir. Always great to read your insights about the ongoing tensions on the LAC.

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  5. Short Sharp and costly conflict seems to be the only way out.

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  6. Ur analysis is pretty decent but u really think India can afford military action against china? India didn't have guts against china.it really hurts me why??

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    Replies
    1. India didnt have guts ? What is this guts ? To die fighting enemy while inflicting heavy casualty on them is bravery. Death in battle field is glorious. Keep your stupidity to yourself instead of making foolish statements.

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  7. Ur analysis is pretty decent India didn't hv guts to take strict action against china. It really hurts me!! Look Israel unity & technology unite all nation but this is not happening in India why!!! We all are selfish

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  8. Source: Military Digest: Standing Up to Chinese Aggression by Mandeep Singh Bajwa, The Indian Express, June 19, 2020.

    1, Why did our soldiers go to confront the Chinese unarmed?
    I know there’s a protocol dating back to 1996 whereby the two sides have agreed to exercise restraint and not open fire. But this wasn’t patrolling. Colonel Santosh Babu’s battalion, 16 Bihar and the rest of 81 Mountain Brigade were manning frontline defences. It is now certain that the Colonel and his party were lured into a trap through a ruse. The clash wasn’t the result of a momentary lapse of control or triggered by a grave provocation. It was a pre-mediated trap laid by the wily Chinese bent upon creating a critical situation.

    2, Under orders and acting in good faith the unsuspecting Indian soldiers walked right into it. The very specific orders to remain totally unarmed in the Galwan Valley stand-off must’ve come from very high up the chain of command. Who issued that order?

    3, What intelligence inputs were available and more importantly disseminated to the troops on the ground regarding Chinese intentions and whether they were armed or not?

    4, Were any unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) deployed to gather information about the Chinese deployment in the area?

    5, Did the political hierarchy’s bid to project a hunky-dory situation put unnecessary, added weight on local commanders to throw caution to the winds? In such situations it is not unknown for South Block’s impatience to result in troops paying the ultimate price.

    6, The govt’s spin doctors have put out that many of our Jawans died because the extremely low temperature exacerbated their injuries or because of hypothermia after falling into the Galwan river. Was no provision made for medical treatment beyond first-aid in the field or evacuation of casualties to base hospitals?

    7, It strikes me as curious that elements of three infantry battalions and two artillery regiments should’ve been involved yet the Chinese seem to have out-numbered them. What was the force level deployed in the area?

    8, Why were we in denial for so long? Why the constant, repugnant effort to placate the intractable Chinese? For example, the defence minister’s very first statement made a month after the intrusions started to the effect that ‘the Chinese had come in sizeable numbers along (rather than across) the Line of Actual Control. It could only have served but to embolden Chinese belligerence.

    9, What options are available to us for immediate operations to restore the status quo and evict the Chinese?
    We can exercise any of three options: block any further advance with defensive positions and wait (leading to negotiations), launch a limited offensive to oust the intruders or use our offensive capability to occupy Chinese territory and swap that for territory that we lost to them.

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    Replies
    1. I gather option 9. is being adapted now. Part if the region is taken back and hence China, which wants to establish herself a superpower, is not agreeing to its wedding the land it had occupied. They want india to go back.

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  9. Thank you for keeping us informed, when no media outlet does it anymore.

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  10. Excellent. Need courage to speak the truth.

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  11. After the incident it appears that we have not learnt our lessons properly despite repeated so called self satisfying thoughts of" Dhokhas" .There is nothing called 'Dhokha'as shown in media, only better strategy of Chinese everytime. Where is the out of turn "meritorious general" hiding now who planned fashionable trimming of the force & snatching even rations from it just to score brownie points with those who could promote him to a never before post & vocally thumped his chest with strike on relatively weaker adversaries. He clearly blinded himself to the fact that in case of an army, strength in numbers is still a weapon despite all technological advancement & that an army walks on stomach.The status of army vs civilian officers was downgraded right before him, but to be on the right side for his promotion he silently consented to it.Those in command must know that whatever support airforce & Navy may give, ultimately it is the ground forces which will have to occupy ground. For the price of five fighter planes, all the ground soldiers could be effectively equipped to be most modern.However this could not be done despite lapse of more than 15 years since planned for the obvious reasons. It is laughable that the army is trying to hide the number of recent pows in modern times of information explosion which are proved to be wrong on the next day, discrediting army itself.How a general who himself had first hand lessons of Kargil, allowed mountain posts to be vacant due to cited reasons of COVID 19 !.Was all the force under him infected with COVID 19.Could he not have have sent those fit or requisitioned extra men to immediately occupy the posts as scheduled every year.
    What more is to be expected from a demoralised & ill equipped army with short sighted, flattering appointees in command.How long we can continue with this & then boast about being fully prepared for facing China in full fledged combat.Welcome 1962 again!
    My heart goes out to all those who went down fighting or got injured or fought to their fullest.They did what they could do best. They have paid the price for deliberately prolonged defficiencies of the system. May god be with them & their bereaved families.An average Indian expresses his sincere gratitude to them.

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    Replies
    1. What an idiot ! PoWs ? Do you have an idea of what rubbish you are uttering here ?

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  12. The General truely said in one of TV discussions, you know better than anyone with info.
    We can lay our lives for sure but people shall know the truth for which they are dying.
    Today 10 of our soldiers release by Chinese, which our govt.bodies were denying till yesterday

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  13. "Indian border patrols, which traditionally went up to a mountain spur called Finger 8, were now blocked by the PLA at Finger 4, eight km inside the Indian-claimed LAC."

    Wrong! You make it seem like China reached Finger 4 only in May 2020. However, China has had control till finger 4 for much longer. Refer to *link 1 where even at the time of Doklam crisis, China had control of Finger 4. I'm sure they would have had control of finger 4 for much longer based on satellite map I am seeing on zoom.earth website (Coordinates - 33.730906,78.762222). Either you didn't do proper research before writing or you are trying to discredit the government. Request you to clarify this.

    *Link 1: https://www.indiatoday.in/india/video/india-china-ladakh-pangong-lake-doklam-standoff-987150-2017-08-15

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    Replies
    1. @broadsword/Ajai Shukla, awaiting your clarification.

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  14. Thank you for your insightful article

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  15. Recent China-India standoff is articulately summarized by Mr. Shukla.

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  16. Ok we did not petrol till the edge but surely ITBP SHOULD HAVE HAD SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY TO CROSS CHECK GROUND REALITIES

    NOW WE ARE FACED WITH A PROPOSITION where MIG and SuMKI capabilities are known to china and Pakistan

    Mirages and rafale is our only hope

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  17. daulet beg oldi (DBO) is a mere 60 km distant from karakoram pass. its almost adhoc landing strip has in the recent years been reinforced, upgraded to allow even very large aircraft like the super hercules, vended by US america, to land and take off. with the establishment of an all weather road on the axis of maintenance DBO's potential as a forward base to interdict the karakoram pass will necessitate beijing instructing its military to occupy DBO. the main thrust will be after august, when there will be a wave of second phase covid infections raging across upper india. the dislocations caused by the lock-out in the course of the first phase has impacted agricultural activities, harvests, sowings, simultaneously disrupting markets, transport of produce, and warehousing, storage activities. there will be unrest of varying intensity. this will compound the hysteria around the pandemic. beijing has been training intensely for the eventuality, including live fire drills https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/3089388/pla-reveals-live-fire-drill-eastern-tibet-mountains-china-india

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  18. Is the news about ten soldiers captured correct?

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    Replies
    1. Yup... 6 soldiers and 4 offrs

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  19. Why did the government not come out with the truth since they came to know about it? Who dares to ask the government about the lapses, first at LAC, and then in coming up with right information?

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  20. Thank you for the insightful explanation

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  21. What benifits indian govt try to achieve by denying the Chinese incursions?

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  22. thoughts after all party meet?

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  23. 1. The Pulwama attack had jolted the entire nation in Feb 2019. Whole lot of debates followed in the national media and even in the armed forces with few discussing as to how this debacle occurred in our backyard without any credible intelligence input; obviously, not referring to the generic inputs that are flagged constantly.

    2. The whole nation was aghast at the scale of the IED blast and the loss of 40 souls. It was felt that this was the worst possible attack. However, this was an incident which should not only make us introspect but also force us to see if the lessons of such incidents in the bygones were not forgotten. It is only then we could decide as to what should be our standard drills at all times and what should be the basics that should not be flouted; even if the situation seems normal.

    3. When we look back we can see number of such vehicle IED incidents. One of the most glaring and devastating one among them is the 1983 Beirut truck bombings. In October 1983, two truck bombs struck buildings in Beirut, Lebanon, housing American and French service members of a military peacekeeping operation during the Lebanese Civil Unrest. The attack killed 241 U.S. and 58 French military personnel.

    4. The sentries at the gate of the barracks were operating under rules of engagement which made it very difficult to respond quickly to the truck. On the day of the bombing, the sentries were ordered to keep a loaded magazine inserted in their weapon and no round in the chamber. Only one sentry was able to chamber a round. However, by that time the truck was already crashing into the building. This incident shows a worst case scenario in a vehicle borne suicide IED attack.

    5. During the turbulent phase of militancy in J&K, the convoy protection drills were refined to cater to any type of IED or stand off attack. As and when the situation in the valley started visibly stabilising, these drills got diluted. Main reason for this was to reduce strain on the daily life of the citizens. However, it did lead to gaps and loopholes in the convoy protection which could be exploited by inimical elements.

    6. Post the Pulwama attack, most of the convoy protection drills have again been refined. At the same time number of rules and regulations have been put in place for convoy movement; for both the civilian population and the forces running the convoy. And, consequently, the gaps and loopholes have been addressed to mitigate the threat to convoys. Basically, all contingencies have been revived, reviewed and revised.

    7. The reason to narrate the Beirut bombing incident was to bring out only one important aspect – BE ALWAYS PREPARED FOR THE WORST. If we keep that as the base for planning any activity, it would always keep us prepared to take on the worst case scenarios. The critics would call it playing it too safe. But then this is the only way to avoid unnecessary casualties. Its not a war wherein we are discussing the risk taking ability. The question to be asked is whether we should take risk to life or limb in such peace time situations.

    8. Contingency planning is one of the basic parameter of any military operation. The more contingencies one plans and rehearses, more prepared one gets to handle any eventuality. When you can give the devil his due and imagine the worst that he or she can bring to the table, you will be equally prepared to handle the same. Contingency planning is not a conjecture that has not been proven true as yet or even a corollary, but it is the ‘theorem' that has been rigorously proven time and again.

    9. In the present context of the Galawan face off with the ever belligerent Chinese, one of the tough question that arises is that, had we adhered to this theorem? Was there any contingency planning and rehearsals carried out to counter the worst case scenarios at diplomatic and military level. The 20 fatal casualties and many more non fatal ones is certainly one of the worst possible outcome that should have been foreseen and avoided at all cost!

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  24. Have been watching you on the many shows as the conflict is being reported.
    It takes great courage to take a stand and even greater to ask the tough questions.
    Thank you for being you and doing work that actually helps our soldiers.
    Your work makes a difference.

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  25. So that China has not taken our territory is it business as usual?? Let mr Modi reply .All drama have good ending this one was laughable. Do we trust our GOI? As we trusted Nehru. Same pill but more bitter to swallow

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  26. Showering Petals and lighting Ships is the best this CDS could give. Where is the synergy,focus, competence and so called professionalism gone ....

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  27. The whole bunch of them including the PM, the Indian Army, MEA are disgusting cowards. There is a deep crisis in the Republic. When there is a lack of basic integrity, what else can you expect from these modern day Caligulas?

    Thank you sir for showing us that the Emperor has no clothes.

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    Replies
    1. It us so easy and comfortable to criticise the military and establishment in retrospect. It needs guts to face enemy and protect the nation. Anybody can advise, and they are doing that job nicely, while sitting at home. Does it add to morals of those defending you?

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  28. Every bit of this article is coming out to be true now speaking as per the developments in the present context. Now the prime minister has even gone ahead denying any intrusion from the china side in the lac region. this is exactly what the chinese wanted. now the bargaining chips of the chinese have come into play. they will pull back from finger 4 of pangong tso while taking away galwan valley with them just as this crystal clear article of colonel (retd.) Ajai Shukla suggests. india is clearly on the backfoot from this point of time. Also now the central govt must make clear that whether india has any claims on Aksai Chin or we have completely surrendered that region to China now. Because if this is true then we shouldn't be showing Aksai Chin on our map from this point. Completely heartbroken by our 'beloved' prime minister's statement tonight. this will indeed go down as a very dark day in indian history. Could our 'beloved' prime minister also explain to the nation that how and why we lost 20 bravehearts of our indian army if indeed there was no intrusion from PLA?

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  29. Indian citizens now need to take it upon themselves? .. to make jatthaas and evict the Chinese from our occupied land and push them back to our perception of LAC first? .. And then people of Bharat will evict China from entire occupied Indian territory in Ladakh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh in next step. .. And then liberate Tibet.

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  30. Our politicians are not honest they just aare amazing the money by corrupt practices and depositing in swiss Banks . They just join politics to make money not to serve the nation . There is no national spirit in these politicians.Just changing the party for lust of money. This is country where politicians can be bought by bribing .They have their price tag .

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  31. Inteligent organizations learn from past experiences. Didn't we learn from the Kargil conflict ?
    The first intrusion happened on 5th May2020? What proactive steps were initiated by govt to stop further intrusions? Every citizen has a right to know.

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  32. China is a terrorist state and we must push for it to be classified as such at the UN and at every forum and at bilateral discussions.

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  33. HOW CHINA IS CLAIMING INDIAN TERRITORY WHEN INDIA HAD NO COMMON BORDER WITH CHINA BEFORE TIBET WAS INVADED & CAPTURED BY CHINA AFTER SLAUGHTER OF MILLIONS OF TIBETAN IN 1950? SO CHINA'S CLAIM IS TOTALLY FALSE. CHINA MUST WITHDRAW FROM TIBET. INDIA & OTHER COUNTRIES MUST PASS AN RESOLUTION ASKING CHINA TO VACATE TIBET IMMEDIATELY.OTHERWISE ALL COUNTRIES WILL TOTALLY BOYCOTT CHINA.THIS IS PERMANENT SOLUTION TO BORDER WITH CHINA.

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  34. “Nobody has intruded into our border, neither is anybody there now, nor have our posts been captured,” Modi. (Reuters)

    There's your answer, Mr. Shukla.

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  35. Very good and informative article. Thanks.

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  36. Time to stand up, move forward and push them back, from where they came.

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  37. Very detailed chronology. I haven't read this much detail anywhere else. Looks like the military and the country's leadership was asleep at the wheel. What is China's end goal here? Do they want to go deeper inside India? Can India contain them?

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  38. You were correct all along Sir.

    Generals have been caught napping and now we are staring at either a costly War or stomach the loss of another chunk of Indian territory at least for the time being.

    Core commander of the 14th core goofed-up big time in dismissing the build-up on the Chinese side as just their summer exercise and not immediately responding with counter buildup on the Indian side. I can't believe that an Army General who must have been serving for about 3 decades can commit such a blunder knowing fully well the history of Chinese deception.

    I hope some accountability is fixed for putting the country through this humiliation at such grave times.

    Chinese already have the first-mover advantage and getting into a War unless imposed by Chinese (by firing the first bullet) in current times doesn't look like a wise thing to do.

    India needs to negotiate a de-escalation and bide its time. Keep building up border infrastructure, Military Muscle, and international alliance like QUAD to take on China at more opportune a time.

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  39. Accountability responsibilty of following be fixed. A)RAW what intelligence did they provide to NSA, pmo army airforce navy CDS. B)IB what inputs were provided by them . C) NTRO :what inputs alerts were provided by them D)Defence inteligence agency :what int and assesment did they give . E) How did NSA asses and what action did he take . The CDS was caught with his pants down . The army troops far from being professional as they normally are were shown moving like a uñarmed mob moving up and down with Chinese. Who ordered that . The external affairs minister and minstry has totally failed to improve relations with China Pakistan Nepal . Some body needs to be sacked. The army is doing the dirty job because Netas Babu's police pandus failed creating oppurtunity for billions in arms purchases which will now take place when money is required for education health infrastructure and pressing medical needs. Heads must roll. The army is doing the job with outdated rifles , no carbines, old lmgs old ill-fitting clothes substandard shoes socks and combat gear and clothing . The defence secys for last 15 years must be taken to task and defence ministers like Anthony jailed

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  40. Could you shed more light on the 43000 sqkm accepted as having being “yielded” by India over the last 60 years?

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  41. How is that all of you have forgotten the strategy of China who orchestrated the biological warfare of Corona to weaken India and all her supporting countries to launch its 'aggressive' move to stealthily shift the LAC? Not a single member of the UNGA and UNSC has given credence to the implications of Corona spread, let alone raising this matter at the UN. Either China has bought them over or quietly snubbed them.

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  42. you are a great writer I don't think I can ever write up to this length kudos to you

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  43. Very well described sir, I couldn't believe that thousands of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers crossed the LAC. Similarly it is unbelievable that at all six ingress points – three in the Galwan valley, one at Pangong Tso and one further south at Chushul, the Chinese have fortified their positions with clear intentions to stay. I am agree with you that New Delhi must reverse years of subservient behavior towards China.

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  44. New Buddha - OK, they were not PWs but were state guests of PLA!
    It is this denial that has landed us in this mess.
    And, please be polite.

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  45. Isn't the LAC shown in Demchok sector along the Indus River and even more westward as we approach Demchok?

    There are clear permanent Chinese establishments (military base) visible there.

    Were those areas lost in 1962 itself or we have lost them in the past 2 decades?

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