Tata Aerospace & Defence, Airbus, await contract to manufacture 56 aircraft - Broadsword by Ajai Shukla - Strategy. Economics. Defence.

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Saturday 23 February 2019

Tata Aerospace & Defence, Airbus, await contract to manufacture 56 aircraft

The Airbus C295 on display at Aero India 2019

By Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 24th Feb 19

An unusual sight in Bengaluru, the Portuguese Air Force Airbus C295 transporter shuddered as the pilot revved its twin turboprops to maximum. As he released the brakes, the plane shot forward, accelerating down the runway almost like a fighter, lifting off in just 700 metres and climbing rapidly to mission altitude. On board the aircraft, which was displayed at Aero India 2019, Business Standard was shown its multiple mission capability – the ability to transport 71 people, lift 7.25 tonnes of cargo or monitor the sea for 11 hours non-stop, using sophisticated radar and infra-red scanners. 

Descending in tight turns to the Indian Air Force (IAF) base at Yelanhanka, the C295 rolled to a stop just 350 metres after touching down.

This is the medium transport aircraft Tata Aerospace & Defence (Tata A&D) is slated to build in India, as part of the Ministry of Defence’s (MoD’s) intention to develop a private sector rival to Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL). At the on-going Aero India 2019 show, both Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and IAF boss, Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa, singled out the C295 for mention as one of the transformative projects in the pipeline.

Yet, paradoxically, there is only glacial movement towards awarding a contract. Six years after issuing a tender and five years since Airbus submitted a bid to build the C295 in partnership with Tata A&D, the cost negotiation committee (CNC) is only now finalizing its report. With the cabinet required to okay the approximately Rs 12,000 crore contract, the looming elections and a cash crunch stand in the way of an early clearance.

Other hurdles stand in the way of this procurement of 56 aircraft to replace the IAF’s venerable HS-748 Avros. First amongst them is HAL’s initiative to extend the life of the Avro, by replacing its old Rolls-Royce Dart engines and modernizing its cockpit and avionics. HAL chief, R Madhavan told Business Standard last month: “Only one-third of the Avro’s structural life of 100,000 hours has been used. With a new engine, the Avro can remain in service for a long time.”

To create a prototype, HAL is spending Rs 50 crore to upgrade its own Avro aircraft, with new engines and a glass cockpit.

Another dilemma is the offer – made by Ukraine to Dhanoa during Aero India 2019 – of the new Antonov -132, an aircraft in the same class as the C295, which the Ukrainian firm has developed in partnership with Saudi Arabia Military Industries (SAMI). 

The Antonov-132 on display at Aero India 2019

Antonov did not respond to the Avro-replacement tender because it was facing a crisis with the Russian annexation of the Crimea, but repeatedly asked for a bidding extension. With Ukraine now resuming the upgrade of the IAF’s An-32 fleet, it could exercise some leverage.

The third hurdle is the difficult terms of the Avro-replacement RFP. Of the 56 aircraft, Airbus is required to supply the first 16 C295s in flyaway condition from its plant in Sevilla, Spain. That is to be followed by eight C295s built by Tata from semi-knocked down (SKD) kits; and then another eight from completely-knocked down (CKD) kits. Then, Tata A&D must build the remaining 24 in India, indigenizing the sourcing of assemblies and sub-assemblies. Given the large number of aircraft being supplied fully built and in kits, meeting the 50 per cent indigenization requirement will be a challenge.

Airbus, however, is confident of meeting the indigenization requirements. Its senior executives anticipate India will order more C295s for its military and central armed police forces (CAPFs), which, after Pulwama, have already spoken about moving a larger share of troopers by air.

Airbus also cites the reactivation of advanced landing grounds (ALGs) in the border areas, which would create a requirement of rugged aircraft like the C295 to operate off them, including for the UDAN programme.

The Airbus-Tata bid is currently being processed as a single-vendor procurement, for which MoD sanction has been obtained. In 2013,tenders had been sent out to US firms Boeing and Lockheed Martin, Antonov; Swedish company Saab; Ilyushin of Russia; and Italian company, Alenia Aeromacchi, besides Airbus Defence & Space. However, for various reasons, such as not having an aircraft with the specifications that the IAF wanted, only Airbus responded. 

While the IAF already operates a large fleet of AN-32s (which are being upgraded), the ageing IL-76 and new C-130J Super Hercules and C-17 Globemaster IIIs, there is a need for more utility and transport aircraft, not just for tactical use but also for disaster relief and emergencies.

There is also an awareness of a shortfall in military airlift capability with the falling through of the Indo-Russian project to jointly developing and build a new “Multi-role Transport Aircraft (MTA).” 

Airbus and Tata executives anticipate employing about 2,500 workers on the C295 line and 8,000 more in Tier-1, Tier-2 and Tier-3 suppliers.


  1. IAF must combine the requirements of AN32 and Avro. Replace by a single transport aircraft.
    The way we going about it , looks like IAF has learnt nothing from light helicopter and fighter procurements failures.

    We have too many variety in our inventory. This combination will total to about 160+ numbers.
    Then manufacture all of them in India.

    It is worth having a look at AN32. It has new gen P&W engines, addressing IAF concerns that led to collapse of Russian joint venture.

  2. What will really benefit the aerospace industry is expanding on this order with some inter service cooperation.

    IAF has 56/57 Avro's and 104 An 32's, which makes a total of 161 aircraft which has more or less similar role

    The Navy is looking to replace their Il-38's. They have launched the MRMR requirements which require 9 Aircraft of similar role to the C295

    The Coast Guard also wants 6 medium patrol aircraft. They were also looking at the C295 as an option.

    The BSF also operates 2/3 Avro's which require replacing.

    Rather than creating different competitions to get these which will be a massive waste of time, all the different service's along with their respective ministries should be looking to show some synergy and order a total of 177 C295's in their respective service configurations. This should only be done if the Tata's can achieve 100% indigenization. With massive scales on hand it should be doable for the Tata's. If done correctly this project will cost around 45000 Crores. Which is a small amount to build up the private sector aerospace industry. As for the sensor packages the Navy and the Coast Guard can customize according to their requirements.

    HAL's should not be allowed to come into this project. They have enough on their hand with the Sukhoi overhaul, ALH, LCH, LUH, LCA IOC/FOC/Mark 1A/2, HTT-40, Dornier, AMCA etc. The objective of building HAL's competitor is a good idea. If HAL is made to compete rather than just given projects it will change their attitude to a large extent just like how the introduction of private sector players in the telecom industry changed the attitude of government owned telecom companies.


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